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Layouts, Blocks, and Templates Documentation


In Magento 2, layouts, blocks, and templates form the backbone of the presentation layer of your online store. Understanding how these components work together is crucial for customizing the appearance and functionality of your Magento store. This documentation provides an in-depth overview of layouts, blocks, and templates, including their definitions, relationships, and usage examples.



Layouts in Magento 2 are XML files that define the structure and content of a page. They specify the positioning and rendering of blocks and containers within a page. Layout files are located in the app/design/frontend/ or app/design/adminhtml/ directory of your Magento installation.


A layout file consists of a <layout> root node, which can contain multiple <block> and <container> nodes. The <block> nodes represent individual blocks of content, while the <container> nodes define areas within the layout where blocks can be dynamically added.

Usage Example

Consider a scenario where you want to add a banner to the homepage of your Magento store. To achieve this, you would create a custom layout file named cms_index_index.xml within your theme's layout directory. Within this file, you would define a new block that corresponds to your banner, specifying its template and other attributes.

<layout xmlns:xsi=""
<referenceContainer name="content">
<block class="Magento\Framework\View\Element\Template" name="custom_banner"
template="Vendor_Module::banner.phtml" after="cms_page">
<argument name="banner_text" xsi:type="string">Welcome to our store!</argument>

In this example, we've created a block named custom_banner and associated it with the Vendor_Module::banner.phtml template. We've also passed a custom argument banner_text to the block, which can be accessed within the template.



Blocks in Magento 2 are PHP classes that handle the business logic and rendering of specific sections of a webpage. They encapsulate data and functionality, which can be accessed and manipulated within the associated templates. Blocks are instantiated and configured within layout files using the <block> nodes.

Usage Example

Suppose you want to create a block that displays a list of recently added products. You would create a custom PHP block class, RecentProducts, which extends the Magento\Framework\View\Element\Template class. Within this class, you would define a method, getRecentProducts(), that retrieves the necessary data and returns it to the template.

namespace Vendor\Module\Block;
use Magento\Framework\View\Element\Template;
class RecentProducts extends Template
protected $productCollectionFactory;
public function __construct(
Template\Context $context,
\Magento\Catalog\Model\ResourceModel\Product\CollectionFactory $productCollectionFactory,
array $data = []
) {
$this->productCollectionFactory = $productCollectionFactory;
parent::__construct($context, $data);
public function getRecentProducts()
$collection = $this->productCollectionFactory->create();
->setOrder('created_at', 'DESC')
return $collection;

Now, in your layout file, you can add the RecentProducts block to the desired container.

<block class="Vendor\Module\Block\RecentProducts" name="recent_products"

In the associated template file, recent_products.phtml, you can access the data returned by the getRecentProducts() method using the $block object.

/** @var \Vendor\Module\Block\RecentProducts $block */
$recentProducts = $block->getRecentProducts();
foreach ($recentProducts as $product) {
// Display product details



Templates in Magento 2 are PHP files that handle the presentation logic of a block. They define the HTML structure and styling for a specific block. Templates are associated with blocks within layout files using the template attribute of the <block> nodes.

Usage Example

Consider the previous example of the RecentProducts block. In order to display the list of recent products, you would create a template file named recent_products.phtml within your theme's template directory. Inside this file, you would write the necessary HTML and PHP code to render the list.

/** @var \Vendor\Module\Block\RecentProducts $block */
$recentProducts = $block->getRecentProducts();
<div class="recent-products">
<h2>Recently Added Products</h2>
<?php foreach ($recentProducts as $product): ?>
<a href="<?php echo $block->getProductUrl($product); ?>"><?php echo $product->getName(); ?></a>
<span class="price"><?php echo $product->getPrice(); ?></span>
<?php endforeach; ?>

In this template, we iterate over the $recentProducts array and generate the necessary HTML markup for each product. We can access the product data and methods provided by the block using the $block object.


Understanding the concepts of layouts, blocks, and templates is essential for customizing the appearance and functionality of your Magento 2 store. Layouts define the structure of a page, blocks handle business logic and rendering, and templates handle the presentation logic. By leveraging these components effectively, you can create a highly customizable and visually appealing online store.