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Integration Testing in Magento 2


Integration testing is a crucial phase in the software development lifecycle that involves testing individual software modules as a group. The primary purpose of integration testing is to expose faults in the interaction between integrated units. It is conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified functional requirements.

In the context of software development, integration tests play a pivotal role in ensuring that the different pieces of a system work together as expected. These tests are typically written to test the interaction between different parts of the system, such as modules, functions, or services. They can help identify issues with the system's interfaces, performance, and behavior.

While unit tests focus on verifying the correctness of individual components in isolation, integration tests ensure that the system works correctly as a whole. They are designed to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together.

Integration tests are particularly important in complex systems where components are developed separately or in parallel. They help ensure that changes or additions to one part of the system do not break other parts. They also help verify that the system meets its overall functional and performance requirements.

Now, let's dive into the specifics of running integration tests in Magento 2.

Running Integration Tests in Magento 2

Integration tests in Magento 2 require a runtime environment, necessitating some preparation before execution. These tests can be run using the command line interface (CLI) or within an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like PhpStorm.

Setting Up the Integration Test Framework

To execute integration tests, you need to create and configure a test database. Depending on your requirements, you might also want to adjust the PHPUnit configuration. For more details, refer to the section on Preparing Integration Test Execution.

Command Line Interface (CLI)

The CLI is a suitable option for running tests locally during development or on remote servers during continuous integration. For more information, refer to the section on Running Integration Tests in the CLI.

PhpStorm IDE

Running integration tests within an IDE like PhpStorm is convenient during development, especially when writing a new integration test. However, apart from convenience, there are no additional benefits over running the tests on the console. For more information, refer to the section on Running Integration Tests in PhpStorm.

Preparing Integration Test Execution

Before using the Magento integration test framework, you need to prepare the test environment. This involves setting up a dedicated integration test database, configuring the test framework database, and ensuring the PHPUnit configuration aligns with the purpose of the integration test execution.

Integration Test Database

By default, the test framework installs a fresh Magento test database for every integration test run. It's crucial not to use the same database as your live Magento instance, as all data, including products, customers, orders, etc., will be lost.

For safety, it's recommended to use a dedicated database user for running the tests. This user should not have access to any other databases. Here's an example of SQL commands that create a test database and a dedicated test user account:

DATABASE magento_integration_tests;
ON magento_integration_tests.* TO 'magento2_test_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'magento2_test_password';

Remember to replace the example database, username, and password with ones that suit your requirements and conventions.

Configuring the Framework for Test Environment

The Magento 2 integration test framework provides a configuration file template located at dev/tests/integration/etc/install-config-mysql.php.dist.

Copy this file to dev/tests/integration/etc/install-config-mysql.php (without the .dist suffix) and add your test database access credentials. The contents will look similar to the following:

return [
'db-host' => 'localhost',
'db-user' => 'magento2_test_user',
'db-password' => 'magento2_test_password',
'db-name' => 'magento_integration_tests',
'db-prefix' => '',
'backend-frontname' => 'backend',
'admin-user' => \Magento\TestFramework\Bootstrap::ADMIN_NAME,
'admin-password' => \Magento\TestFramework\Bootstrap::ADMIN_PASSWORD,
'admin-email' => \Magento\TestFramework\Bootstrap::ADMIN_EMAIL,
'admin-firstname' => \Magento\TestFramework\Bootstrap::ADMIN_FIRSTNAME,
'admin-lastname' => \Magento\TestFramework\Bootstrap::ADMIN_LASTNAME,
'amqp-host' => 'localhost',
'amqp-port' => '5672',
'amqp-user' => 'guest',
'amqp-password' => 'guest',

Leave all the settings that do not start with db- and amqp- at their default values. You can include additional setup options available to the setup:install command in the test configuration file.

Adjusting the PHPUnit Configuration File

The default integration test configuration is located in the dev/tests/integration/phpunit.xml.dist file. Without adjustments, this configuration runs all core integration tests, which is useful on a continuous integration server.

When making adjustments to the configuration, copy the default file to dev/tests/integration/phpunit.xml (without the .dist suffix) and make your changes there. This ensures your changes won't be overwritten during Magento upgrades.

There are many settings in the file. This guide will only describe three common adjustments. For more information about the available configuration settings, refer to the PHPUnit documentation and comments in the default file.


The default value for the TESTS_CLEANUP constant is enabled. If set to enabled, the integration test framework cleans the test database and reinstalls Magento on every test run. This ensures any new modules are automatically picked up and any artifacts left behind by previous test runs are removed. It also causes the test framework to flush the test Magento configuration, the cache, and the code generation before executing any tests.

The downside of setting TEST_CLEANUP to enabled is that the reinstallation of Magento takes time. The exact time depends on the host you are using to run the integration tests and the Magento version.

During the development of new integration tests, where only a subset of the tests is executed repeatedly, the overhead of setting up a fresh execution environment for each run can quickly become a burden. In that case, the TEST_CLEANUP constant can be set to disabled. The test execution will start much quicker, but as a consequence, the developer must manually flush the cache and the database when needed.

The integration test framework creates the temporary test files beneath the directory dev/tests/integration/tmp/sandbox-* (followed by a long hash ID). To force the test framework to regenerate the cache and the other files, remove the directory:

rm -r dev/tests/integration/tmp/sandbox-*

Executing Third-Party Integration Tests

Magento code integration tests reside in the dev/tests/integration/testsuite directory. For core tests, it makes sense that the integration tests do not reside within individual modules, because most integration tests execute code from many different modules.

Specific integration tests for shop implementation could also be placed within a different subdirectory of dev/tests/integration/testsuite, and then would be executed together with the core tests.

However, third-party extensions are contained within a single directory and might supply custom integration tests too. These tests usually reside in the Test/Integration/ subdirectory within the module folder.

These third-party integration tests are not picked up by the default integration test configuration. You can add a test suite configuration, like the following, to the <testsuites> section of the phpunit.xml file so they are included during test execution.

<testsuite name="Third Party Integration Tests">

Such a test suite configuration can then be executed using the --testsuite <name> command option. For example, if you are in the dev/tests/integration directory:

php ../../../vendor/bin/phpunit --testsuite "Third Party Integration Tests"

Running Integration Tests in the CLI

The most common way to execute integration tests is using the CLI. Ensure you have prepared the integration test environment before starting.

Integration tests must be executed from the dev/tests/integration working directory. The test configuration resides in that directory and will be picked up by phpunit automatically, without the need to specify it as a command line option.

Running All Integration Tests

By default, if no additional arguments are specified, the test configuration executes all integration tests in the dev/tests/integration/testsuite directory.

cd dev/tests/integration

Running Only a Custom Test Suite

PHPUnit offers several ways to only execute a subset of tests. For example, it is common to only execute a single test suite from the phpunit.xml configuration.

cd dev/tests/integration
../../../vendor/bin/phpunit --testsuite "Memory Usage Tests"

Running Tests from a Specific Directory Tree

To execute only the tests within a specific directory (for example an extension), pass the path to that directory as an argument to phpunit:

cd dev/tests/integration
../../../vendor/bin/phpunit ../../../app/code/Acme/Example/Test/Integration

Running a Single Test Class

When developing a new integration test class, it is common to run only that single test many times. Pass the path to the file containing the test class as an argument to phpunit:

cd dev/tests/integration
../../../vendor/bin/phpunit ../../../app/code/Acme/Example/Test/Integration/ExampleTest.php

Running a Single Test within a Test Class

You can run only a single test within a test class by specifying the test class together with the --filter argument and the name to select the test that you are currently developing:

cd dev/tests/integration
../../../vendor/bin/phpunit --filter 'testOnlyThisOneIsExecuted' ../../../app/code/Acme/Example/Test/Integration/ExampleTest.php

Common Mistakes

Could Not Read Files Specified as Arguments

This error occurs if the integration tests are executed from the wrong directory.

Could Not Read “dev/tests/integration/phpunit.xml”

This error occurs if the integration tests are executed from a different directory than dev/tests/integration. To fix the issue, change to the dev/tests/integration directory, adjust any relative paths accordingly, and run the tests again.

Unable to Connect to MySQL

The PHP interpreter must be able to connect to the test database. By default, this means the tests have to run on the same host as the MySQL server. This problem most commonly occurs during development with Vagrant or Docker, where the Magento database is running on a virtual machine. If the tests then are executed using a PHP interpreter on the host system, the database might not be accessible.

The error usually looks something like this:

Expected log
exception 'PDOException' with message 'SQLSTATE[HY000] [2002] No such file or directory' in /var/www/magento2/vendor/magento/zendframework1/library/Zend/Db/Adapter/Pdo/Abstract.php:129

There are many ways this problem can be resolved, but the easiest is to run the tests in the virtual machine as well.

Running Integration Tests in PhpStorm

When writing new integration tests or during debugging, it is convenient to execute tests from within the PhpStorm IDE. Ensure you have prepared the integration test environment before starting.

Creating an Integration Test Run Configuration

Setting up a run configuration for integration tests is very similar to creating a run configuration for unit tests. See Running Unit Tests in PhpStorm for instructions on creating a basic run configuration. Then, configure the integration test to use the configuration file.

Using the Integration Test Configuration File

The only difference in the run configuration is that the integration test phpunit.xml.dist or phpunit.xml configuration file from the dev/tests/integration directory must be selected.

Using Data Providers in Integration Tests

Data providers are a powerful feature of PHPUnit that allow you to run a test multiple times with different data sets. They are methods that return an array of arrays, where each array is the set of parameters that will be used for a run of the test.

Creating a Data Provider

A data provider method must be public and either return an array of arrays or an object that implements the Iterator interface and yields an array for each iteration. Each array is a set of parameters for the test method.

Here's an example of a data provider:

public function provider()
return [
['value1', 'value2'],
['value3', 'value4'],

Using a Data Provider

To use a data provider, add the @dataProvider annotation to your test method and specify the name of the data provider method. The test method will then be run once for each set of parameters returned by the data provider.

* @dataProvider provider
public function testMethod($param1, $param2)
// Test code here

In this example, testMethod would be run twice: once with $param1 set to 'value1' and $param2 set to 'value2', and once with $param1 set to 'value3' and $param2 set to 'value4'.

Benefits of Using Data Providers

Data providers can help you write more efficient and effective tests. They allow you to easily test a method with a variety of data, which can help you ensure that your code works correctly in different scenarios. They also make your tests more readable and maintainable, as you can easily see the data that is being used for each test and add or remove data sets as needed.

Using Fixtures in Integration Tests

In the context of testing, a fixture is a fixed state of a set of objects used as a baseline for running tests. The purpose of a test fixture is to ensure that there is a well-known and fixed environment in which tests are run so that results are repeatable. Examples of fixtures:

  • Preparation of input data and setup/creation of fake or mock objects
  • Loading a database with a specific, known set of data
  • Copying a specific known set of files creating a test fixture will create a set of objects initialized to certain states.

Creating Fixtures

In Magento 2, fixtures are PHP scripts that set required preconditions. Here is an example of a fixture script:

require 'default_rollback.php';
require __DIR__ . '/../../Customer/_files/customer_rollback.php';
require __DIR__ . '/../../Store/_files/second_website_with_two_stores_rollback.php';
require __DIR__ . '/../../Store/_files/second_website_with_store_group_and_store_rollback.php';

This script includes other scripts that set up the necessary preconditions for the test. There are many predefined fixtures for the most common needs located under /dev/tests/integration/testsuite/Magento/*/_files. For example, the fixture to create an order in your test is located under dev/tests/integration/testsuite/Magento/Sales/_files/order.php.

You can use your own fixtures by adding the path to the fixture script to the @magentoDataFixture annotation in your test method.

* @magentoDataFixture ../../../../app/code/Vendor/Module/Test/Integration/_files/my_custom_fixture.php
public function testMethod()
// Test code here

Using Fixtures

To use a fixture in your test, you need to add a special annotation to your test method:

* @magentoDataFixture Magento/Catalog/_files/categories.php
public function testMethod()
// Test code here

In this example, before testMethod is run, the categories.php fixture script will be executed. This script will set up the necessary preconditions for the test. The @magentoDataFixture Magento/Catalog/_files/categories.php annotation will resolve to dev/tests/integration/testsuite/Magento/Catalog/_files/categories.php.

Fixture Rollback Scripts

Magento 2 also allows you to create rollback scripts for your fixtures. These scripts are used to return the system to its previous state after the test is run. This is useful for cleaning up any changes that were made during the test.

Rollback scripts are named the same as the fixture script, but with _rollback appended to the name. For example, the rollback script for categories.php would be categories_rollback.php.

To use a rollback script, you don't need to do anything special in your test method. Magento 2 will automatically run the appropriate rollback script after each test.

Benefits of Using Fixtures

Fixtures allow you to create consistent, repeatable environments for your tests. This can help you ensure that your tests are reliable and that your code works correctly under different conditions. Fixtures also make your tests easier to write and understand, as you can clearly see the preconditions for each test.

Understanding DocBlock Annotations in Magento 2 Integration Tests

In Magento 2 integration tests, DocBlock annotations are used to provide metadata about the test, such as preconditions, expectations, and dependencies. Here are some of the most commonly used annotations:


This annotation is used to specify a fixture script that sets up the necessary preconditions for the test. The script is run before the test is executed.

* @magentoDataFixture Magento/Catalog/_files/categories.php
public function testMethod()
// Test code here


This annotation is used to enable or disable database isolation for the test. If database isolation is enabled, any changes made to the database in the test will be rolled back after the test is run. This helps to ensure test isolation.

* @magentoDbIsolation enabled
public function testMethod()
// Test code here


This annotation is used to enable or disable application isolation for the test. If application isolation is enabled, the Magento application is reinitialized after the test is run. This helps to ensure that the state of the application does not affect other tests.

* @magentoAppIsolation enabled
public function testMethod()
// Test code here


This annotation is used to set a configuration value for the test. The configuration value is set before the test is run and is restored to its original value after the test is run.

* @magentoConfigFixture current_store web/unsecure/base_url
public function testMethod()
// Test code here


This annotation is used to set the application area for the test, such as 'frontend', 'adminhtml', 'global', etc. The application area affects the behavior of the Magento application.

* @magentoAppArea frontend
public function testMethod()
// Test code here


This annotation is used to enable or disable cache types for the test. The cache types are set before the test is run and are restored to their original state after the test is run.

* @magentoCache full_page enabled
public function testMethod()
// Test code here

These annotations provide a powerful way to control the environment in which your tests are run, helping to ensure that your tests are reliable, repeatable, and isolated from each other.