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Directory Structure Documentation


This documentation provides an in-depth understanding of the directory structure used in PHP and Magento 2 projects. A well-organized and logical directory structure is crucial for efficient development and maintenance of complex applications. By following the recommended structure, developers can easily locate, modify, and extend code while adhering to best practices. This documentation will outline the main directories, their purposes, and provide specific examples and code snippets to illustrate the concepts.

Root Directory

The root directory of a PHP or Magento 2 project contains essential files and directories necessary for the project to function. Let's examine the common files and directories found in this root directory:

  1. app: This directory contains the majority of your application code and configuration files. It is the heart of the Magento 2 application and contains several subdirectories, including:

    • code: This directory is home to your custom PHP modules, organized by vendor name and module name. For instance, if you have a module named "MyModule" developed by "MyVendor," the directory structure would be app/code/MyVendor/MyModule.

    • design: This directory contains your theme-specific files, such as HTML templates, CSS stylesheets, and JavaScript files. The structure follows the same pattern as the code directory, with themes organized by vendor name and theme name.

    • etc: The etc directory holds configuration files for various aspects of your application, including module configuration, database scripts, and system configuration settings. The structure mirrors the code directory, with subdirectories for each module and theme.

    • i18n: This directory is used for internationalization (i18n) purposes. It contains translation files for different languages, allowing your application to be easily localized. Translations are organized by module and theme.

    • view: The view directory is where you define the front-end presentation of your application. It contains subdirectories like frontend and adminhtml for different areas of your application. Each area has its own set of directories for layout, templates, and web assets.

    • vendor: This directory is created when you install dependencies using Composer. It contains all the third-party libraries and modules your project depends on. It is generally recommended not to modify files in this directory directly.

    • composer.json: This file specifies the project's dependencies and other metadata required by Composer for managing dependencies and autoloading.

    • index.php: The index.php file is the entry point of your Magento 2 application. It initializes the Magento framework and processes incoming requests.

    • .htaccess: This file contains Apache web server configuration directives, such as URL rewrite rules and security settings. It helps control access to files and directories.

  2. bin: This directory contains command-line scripts used for various development tasks. For Magento 2 projects, it includes useful scripts like magento for running CLI commands and setup for installing and upgrading the application.

  3. dev: The dev directory is used for development-specific tools and configurations. It may contain additional scripts, debugging utilities, or profiling tools.

  4. pub: This directory houses publicly accessible files that are served directly by the web server. It includes files like images, stylesheets, and JavaScript that can be accessed by users. Magento places its static assets in directories like static, media, and frontend.

  5. var: This directory is used for storing various types of data generated by the application at runtime. It typically includes log files, compiled code, caches, sessions, and generated static files. You should ensure this directory is writable by the web server.

  6. vendor: Similar to the vendor directory in the app directory, this directory contains all the third-party libraries and modules your project depends on. It is managed by Composer and should not be modified directly.


Understanding the directory structure of a PHP or Magento 2 project is crucial for efficient development and maintenance. By following the recommended structure outlined in this documentation, developers can easily navigate and manage their codebase, resulting in a more organized and maintainable application. Use the provided examples and code snippets to gain a deeper understanding of the concepts discussed. Happy coding!